This test is performed to identify abnormal
intestinal microflora, but does not directly
assess abnormal digestion/absorption, inflammation
or other specific aspects of gastrointestinal
health. The test is typically performed
as a follow up after treatments initiated
as a results of the Comprehensive Stool
Analysis with Parasitology.
The ability to access intestinal ecology
through stool culture techniques (which
include comprehensive bacteriology and
yeast cultures to identify the presence
of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora including
Clostridium species and dysbiotic flora),
combined with detection of infectious pathogens
and visual evaluation for the presence
of parasites, is an important step in identifying
imbalances in intestinal microflora.
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A good balance of beneficial microflora
has been known to be associated with health benefits
since the turn of the century. At that
time Metchnikoff drew attention to the adverse
effects of dysbiotic gut microflora on the host
and suggested that ingestion of fermented milks
ameliorated what he called “autointoxication”. He
proposed that the consumption of large quantities
of Lactobacillus species would reduce the number
of toxin-producing bacteria and result in better
health and increased lifespan. 1
Over the past 90 plus years there
has been extensive scientific research demonstrating
that a good balance of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria
and beneficial E. coli bacteria are important
to the functional health of the gut, and as a
consequence, to the whole organism. The benefits
identified include inhibition of microbial pathogens, 2 prevention
and treatment of antibiotic associated diarrhea, 3 prevention
of travelers’ diarrhea, 4 reduction
of lactose intolerance symptoms, 5 reduction
in serum cholesterol levels, 6,7 enhancement
of the immune system, 8 and
inhibition of the proliferation of Candida albicans. 9,10 Research
has shown that improved biological value of food
can be achieved through the activity of Lactobacilli
and Bifidobacteria which have been reported to
produce folic acid, niacin, thiamin, riboflavin,
pyridoxine, biotin and vitamin K. 11
The mechanisms by which these
benefits are derived are not yet fully understood. However,
research suggests that some of the beneficial
effects may be due to the following activities
of beneficial bacteria:
Release of substances antagonistic
to enteropathogenic microorganisms such as lactocidin,
lactobicillin, and acidolin
Competition with pathogens for
Production of lactase
Production of short chain fatty
acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, propionate, and
In a healthy balanced state of
intestinal flora the beneficial bacteria make
up a significant proportion of the total microflora. However,
in many individuals we see an imbalance of beneficial
bacteria and an overgrowth of non-beneficial
or even pathogenic microorganisms (dysbiosis). This
can be due to a variety of factors including:
daily exposure to chemicals in our drinking water that
are toxic to friendly bacteria; the use of antibiotics;
chronic consumption of highly processed foods
( low in fiber, high in sugar) and high stress
levels. Patients may present with chronic
symptoms such as irritable bowel syndrome, autoimmune
diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), fatigue,
chronic headaches, and allergies to a variety
Bacterial sensitivities to a
variety of prescriptive and natural agents are
provided when pathogenic bacteria are cultured.
This provides the clinician with important and
specific clinical information to help plan an
appropriate treatment protocol.
1 Metchnikoff, E. The Prolongation
of Life. 1907, Heinemann
2 Fuller R. Probiotics in human
medicine. GUT, 1991;32:439-442
3 Sittonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen
S, et al. Effect of Lactobacilli GG yogurt in
prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea.
Ann Med. 1990;22:57-59
4 Oksanen P, Salminen S, Saxelin
M, et al. Prevention of travellers’ diarrhea
by Lactobacillus GG. Ann med 1990;22:53-56
5 Kim H and Gilliland S. Lactobacillus
acidophilus as a dietary adjunct for milk to
aid lactose digestion in humans. J Dairy Sci.
6 Tahri K, Crociani J, Ballongue
J and Schneider F. Effects of three strains of
bifidobacterial on cholesterol. Letters Applied
7 Klaver F and Van Der Meer R.
The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacilli
and Bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile
salt- deconjugating activity. Applied and Envir.
8 Peridgon G, Alvarez M, et al.
The oral administration of lactic acid bacteria
increases the mucosal intestinal immunity in
response to enteropathogens J. Food Prot.
9 Elmer G, Surawicz C, and McFarland
L. Biotherapeutic agents – a neglected
modality for the treatment and prevention of intestinal
and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996; 275(11):870-876.
10 Fitzsimmons N and Berry D.
Inhibition of Candida albicans by Lactobacillus
acidophilus: evidence for involvement of a peroxidase
system. Microbios. 1994; 80:125-133
11Noda H, Akasaka N and Ohsugi
M. Biotin production by Bifidobacteria.J
Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 1994; 40:181-188.
Infection with yeast species can cause
a variety of symptoms, both intra- and extra-
gastrointestinal, and may escape suspicion as
a pathogenic agent in many cases. Controversy
remains as to the relationship between Candida
infection and episodes of recurrent diarrhea.1 However,
episodes of yeast infection after short-term
and long-term antibiotic use have been identified
in patients with both gastrointestinal and vaginal
There is some evidence linking
yeast infections with more chronic extra-gastrointestinal
conditions. Studies suggest that the production
of antibodies against Candida Albicans may contribute
to atopic dermatitis in young adults. 3 Other
studies have identified the potential role of
candidiasis in chronic fatigue syndrome. 4
Identification of abnormal levels
of specific yeast species in the stool is an
important diagnostic step in therapeutic planning
for the patient with chronic gastrointestinal
and extra-gastrointestinal symptoms.
Yeast sensitivities to a variety
of prescriptive and natural agents are provided
when yeast is cultured at any level. This provides
the clinician with useful clinical information
to help plan an appropriate treatment protocol.
1 Nolting S, Stanescu Siegmund
A, Schwantes PA. Candida and the gastrointestinal
tract. A medical-research evaluation. Fortschr Med .
2 Goulden V, Glass D, Cunliffe
WJ. Safety of long-term high dose minocycline
in the treatment of acne. Br J Dermatol . 1996;134(4):693-5.
3 Savolainen J, Lammmintausta
K, Kalimo K, Viander M. Candida albicans and
atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy .
4 Cater RE 2 nd . Chronic intestinal
candidiasis as a possible etiological factor
in the chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses .
According to Dr. Hermann R. Bueno of the Royal
Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in
London, “parasites are the missing diagnosis
in the genesis of many chronic health problems,
including diseases of the gastrointestinal
tract and endocrine system.” 1
While parasitic infection may
be an underlying etiological factor in several
chronic disease processes, doctors often do not
consider the potential for parasitic involvement
because signs and symptoms of parasitic infection
often resemble those of other diseases. Moreover,
it has been shown that parasite testing is a
reasonable approach to the detection of causative
agents for chronic gastrointestinal disorders. 2
Most Americans are inclined to
believe that parasitic infection is a rare and
exotic occurrence, limited to those who have
traveled to distant, tropical lands. However,
for a number of reasons, there has been an increase
in the incidence of parasitic infection in this
Reasons for this increase include
the following: 3
Contamination of the water supply
Increased use of day care centers
Travel to or from countries where parasitic infection
Consumption of exotic and uncooked foods
The “sexual revolution”
Signs and symptoms of parasitic infection vary
from one individual to another. The
more common signs and symptoms are: constipation,
diarrhea, bloating, gas, symptoms of irritable
bowel syndrome, arthralgias, myalgias, anemia,
increased allergic reactions, skin lesions,
agitation and anxiety, difficulty with sleep,
decreased energy, malnutrition and decreased
Infection can occur by four different
pathways. These routes include contaminated
food or water, insect vectors, sexual contact,
and passage through the skin and nose. A
thorough patient history will help assess the
possibility of parasitic infection and the need
for appropriate testing to confirm the suspicion.
Definitive diagnosis can be difficult
because the life cycle of some parasites allows
them to escape detection in standard tests. Interfering
factors such as barium, bismuth, enemas, and
antimicrobials such as antibiotics may further
complicate detection of parasites in the stool.
1 Gittleman AL. Guess What
Came to Dinner: parasites and your health .
Garden City Park: Avery Publishing Groups Inc. 1993.
M, Cabrera G, Ponce de Leon P, et al. Parasitosis
in an adult population with chronic gastrointestinal
disorders. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam .
3 Gittleman AL. Ibid. pp.
4 Ibid., pp. 22-3
5 Ibid. p.93 All
lab tests can be done through the mail in the privacy
of your own home, except blood tests, we send you
to a lab to have your blood drawn for these. After
you pay for the test we mail you the kit, the results
take two weeks, the test results will be mailed
to us and we will call you to go over the results,
its that easy! All tests include the consultation
for the report of findings.Click on test of interest
on the left for more information.
Call our office for more details: 800-956-7083 OR